Next version of the Flex SDK, code-named Hero

10 07 2010

The next version of the Flex SDK, code-named Hero. The Hero release has three main goals:

  • Multi-Screen Development: Allow developers to build applications that target the web, desktop or mobile devices using a single unified framework.
  • Spark Maturation: Polish and grow the Spark architecture by adding new Spark components and capabilities.
  • Large-Application Development: Support developers building large applications by improving fundamental pieces of the Flex infrastructure.

Useful Information

Previously, Adobe had investigated splitting off mobile development into a separate, new branch of the Flex framework, code-named Slider. However, the rapid increases in performance on smartphone-class devices over the past year, combined with the highly optimized performance of Adobe runtimes on these devices, now make it feasible to support mobile use cases directly with the core Flex framework.

Given this, Adobe is currently building new mobile development capabilities into the Flex framework. The Hero release of Flex will enable developers to create application experiences that translate well across platforms, and make it easy to build applications that work well on a wide variety of mobile devices. Hero will augment a number of existing Flex components with mobile- and touch-optimized skins and functionality and will also add new components that support mobile-specific UI patterns. Developers already familiar with core Flex concepts like data-binding, MXML and dynamic layout will be able to quickly leverage that knowledge into building applications that can target numerous mobile devices.

You can learn more about the mobile features targeted for the Hero release by reading the following documents:


The Hero release is built atop the latest (and as of yet, unreleased) Flash Player and AIR runtimes. Because of this tight coupling, Adobe are unable to provide nightly builds that showcase in-development Flash Player and AIR features.

Once the current in-development Flash Player and AIR runtimes are showcased in a public release, Hero nightly builds will resume. In the interim, Adobe will release semi-regular builds that showcase Hero feature work not dependent on features under development in the latest Flash Player and AIR runtimes.

We will be posting the first of such builds here shortly.


Milestone Date
Product Defined April 2010
Hero Preview Release Second-half 2010
Final Hero Release 2011

Hero Desktop Feature Specifications

Spark Form
Spark Image
Enhanced RSLs

Hero Mobile Feature Specifications

Mobile Application
View & ViewNavigator
Mobile Application Components – ActionBar

My Own Private India By Joel Stein-Time magazine apologies to Indian-Americans

9 07 2010

I am very much in favor of immigration everywhere in the U.S. except Edison, N.J. The mostly white suburban town I left when I graduated from high school in 1989 — the town that was called Menlo Park when Thomas Alva Edison set up shop there and was later renamed in his honor — has become home to one of the biggest Indian communities in the U.S., as familiar to people in India as how to instruct stupid Americans to reboot their Internet routers.

My town is totally unfamiliar to me. The Pizza Hut where my busboy friends stole pies for our drunken parties is now an Indian sweets shop with a completely inappropriate roof. The A&P I shoplifted from is now an Indian grocery. The multiplex where we snuck into R-rated movies now shows only Bollywood films and serves samosas. The Italian restaurant that my friends stole cash from as waiters is now Moghul, one of the most famous Indian restaurants in the country. There is an entire generation of white children in Edison who have nowhere to learn crime. (See pictures of Thomas Edison’s Menlo Park.)

I never knew how a bunch of people half a world away chose a random town in New Jersey to populate. Were they from some Indian state that got made fun of by all the other Indian states and didn’t want to give up that feeling? Are the malls in India that bad? Did we accidentally keep numbering our parkway exits all the way to Mumbai?

I called James W. Hughes, policy-school dean at Rutgers University, who explained that Lyndon Johnson’s 1965 immigration law raised immigration caps for non-European countries. LBJ apparently had some weird relationship with Asians in which he liked both inviting them over and going over to Asia to kill them.

After the law passed, when I was a kid, a few engineers and doctors from Gujarat moved to Edison because of its proximity to AT&T, good schools and reasonably priced, if slightly deteriorating, post–WW II housing. For a while, we assumed all Indians were geniuses. Then, in the 1980s, the doctors and engineers brought over their merchant cousins, and we were no longer so sure about the genius thing. In the 1990s, the not-as-brilliant merchants brought their even-less-bright cousins, and we started to understand why India is so damn poor.

Eventually, there were enough Indians in Edison to change the culture. At which point my townsfolk started calling the new Edisonians "dot heads." One kid I knew in high school drove down an Indian-dense street yelling for its residents to "go home to India." In retrospect, I question just how good our schools were if "dot heads" was the best racist insult we could come up with for a group of people whose gods have multiple arms and an elephant nose. (See TIME’s special report "The Making of America: Thomas Edison.")

Unlike some of my friends in the 1980s, I liked a lot of things about the way my town changed: far better restaurants, friends dorky enough to play Dungeons & Dragons with me, restaurant owners who didn’t card us because all white people look old. But sometime after I left, the town became a maze of charmless Indian strip malls and housing developments. Whenever I go back, I feel what people in Arizona talk about: a sense of loss and anomie and disbelief that anyone can eat food that spicy.

To figure out why it bothered me so much, I talked to a friend of mine from high school, Jun Choi, who just finished a term as mayor of Edison. Choi said that part of what I don’t like about the new Edison is the reduction of wealth, which probably would have been worse without the arrival of so many Indians, many of whom, fittingly for a town called Edison, are inventors and engineers. And no place is immune to change. In the 11 years I lived in Manhattan’s Chelsea district, that area transformed from a place with gangs and hookers to a place with gays and transvestite hookers to a place with artists and no hookers to a place with rich families and, I’m guessing, mistresses who live a lot like hookers. As Choi pointed out, I was a participant in at least one of those changes. We left it at that.

Unlike previous waves of immigrants, who couldn’t fly home or Skype with relatives, Edison’s first Indian generation didn’t quickly assimilate (and give their kids Western names). But if you look at the current Facebook photos of students at my old high school, J.P. Stevens, which would be very creepy of you, you’ll see that, while the population seems at least half Indian, a lot of them look like the Italian Guidos I grew up with in the 1980s: gold chains, gelled hair, unbuttoned shirts. In fact, they are called Guindians. Their assimilation is so wonderfully American that if the Statue of Liberty could shed a tear, she would. Because of the amount of cologne they wear.

See TIME’s Pictures of the Week.

See the Cartoons of the Week.

TIME responds: We sincerely regret that any of our readers were upset by this humor column of Joel Stein’s. It was in no way intended to cause offense.

Joel Stein responds: I truly feel stomach-sick that I hurt so many people. I was trying to explain how, as someone who believes that immigration has enriched American life and my hometown in particular, I was shocked that I could feel a tiny bit uncomfortable with my changing town when I went to visit it. If we could understand that reaction, we’d be better equipped to debate people on the other side of the immigration issue.,9171,1999416,00.html

Read more:,9171,1999416,00.html#ixzz0tAaLV1JH

Learn Carnatic Music Online

7 07 2010

Ms. Radhika Krishna, who deals this session is the desciple of the Renowned Carnatic Music exponent, Smt. Vaikom B. Rajammal . She is also the Associate Editor & Senior Consultant of

Carnatic Music Lessons by Radhika Krishna
As we all know Carnatic Music is a very complicated system of music. To master this, one should dedicate himself to the rigorous training pattern that carnatic music demands. This page is a humble effort by Ms. Radhika Krishna to help students and aspirants of carnatic music to learn the basics of carnatic music that too totally free. You can also contact Radhika Krishna back for any queries or doubts relating carnatic music lessons or carnatic music learning. The basics of carnatic music are based on a swara system. To start learn carnatic music, the student should train himself with the voice training sessions called varishas. Varishas are swara patters that train a student to handle a particular raga to equip him to learn carnatic music. It also initiates the students to the concept of tala or rhythm. There are mainly Three types of basic varishas. They are

  • Sarali varisha
  • Janta Varisha
  • Madhyastayi & Tarasthai Varishas

To start learn carnatic music, let us learn the first lesson in Sarali varisha The notes are
Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, dha, Ni & Sa

Raga is Mayamalavagowla and Tala is Aadi rendered by Radhika Krishna

Useful Firefox Add-ons

7 07 2010
  1. Poster

A developer tool for interacting with web services and other web resources that lets you make HTTP requests, set the entity body, and content type. This allows you to interact with web services and inspect the results.

After you install it, just go to Tools->Poster to open the poster window. After that, try a GET or POST on your favorite web service or site.

You may also open Poster using the icon button in the status bar.

2.Download Statusbar

View and manage downloads from a tidy statusbar – without the download window getting in the way of your web browsing.

Despite its compact size, Download Statusbar packs in more useful features than the standard download window. The fully customizable interface auto-hides when not in use, allowing full control without interruption.

Be sure to check out the preview images!


DownThemAll is all you can desire from a download manager: it features an advanced accelerator that increases speed up to 400% and it allows you to pause and resume downloads at any time.

DownThemAll is fast, reliable and easy-to-use! It lets you download all the links or images contained in a webpage and much more: you can refine your downloads by fully customizable criteria to get only what you really want!

DownThemAll is absolutely freeware and open-source. No Adware, no Spyware.

Adds advanced Google Search capabilities to the Firefox 3 address bar. Supercharge the "Awesome Bar" with instant search results that appear as you type!


Show the IP address(es) of the current page in the status bar. It also allows querying custom services by IP (right mouse button) and hostname (left mouse button), like whois, netcraft. Additionally you can copy the IP address to the clipboard. This extension was formerly known as ipv6ident.

If only the domain name is shown and not the IP address, check the setting of the network.proxy.socks_remote_dns preference. It has to be turned off for proper operation.


Drop files into attachment boxes instead of browse for them or type in the filename. Drop multiple files and fill all the entries. In some websites it allows to add new upload files: in Google Mail is possible to drop the files directly over the "Attach a file" link.

A Sidebar allows to drop files from a listing

It is now possible to drop text snippets and the extension generates a temporary text file. This is useful with Thunderbird allowing to drop text from an email as a new .eml file.

7.MR Tech Toolkit

The primary goal of this extension is to provide the tools needed to install and manage extensions and themes locally.

To do this the extension provides multi-extension installation support, hacking capabilities to the Extension/Theme manager windows, features to find and troubleshoot Extensions/Themes Build, GUID and Profile information.

The world’s first flying car

2 07 2010

The world’s first flying car, which was caught in a legal snarl in the US, has finally been given the green signal.

Being developed by Boston-based Terrafugia Transition since 2006, the dual-purpose car-cum-plane vehicle called ‘the flying car’ has got the waiver on its weight from the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Under FAA rules, the flying car — categorised as a ‘light sport’ aircraft — was required to be strictly under 1,320 pounds in weight. But with the addition of car safety features such as airbags, crumple zones and a safety cage, the vehicle overshot the weight-limit.

With the FAA now relaxing the rules for its weight, the decks have been cleared for the flying car – a two-seater named Transition – to take-off next year.

‘Our schedule calls for the first delivery to be made prior to the end of 2011. We currently have in excess of 70 orders, which is about a two-year backlog,’ Richard Gersh, vice president for Terrafugia, told IANS.

Asked whether it was big corporates or individuals who have placed orders, Gersh said, ‘They are generally pilots who either own planes or have owned planes in the past.’

About about their plans to raise production, he said: ‘Low volume production will take place in the Boston area. No decisions have been made for other production plans.’

Costing about $200,000, the flying car will travel up to 725 km in the air at a speed of more than 115 km per hour.

Fuelled by gasoline, it will have front-wheel drive on the road and a propeller for flight.

With its wings folded, it can be parked in an ordinary car garage.

The company claims the flying car has been successfully test-flown many times.

It says tests have shown that the vehicle can drive, fly and switch from being a plane to a car in just 30 seconds.

Thnaks to :–airborne-oddities–just-130-000.html–just-130-000.html


15 06 2010 is a list of free livetsream sources for footbal, cricket, rugby and other sports.

This is the link:

Tamil World Conference 2010 Video

8 06 2010

Tamil World Conference 2010 Video

Chronological Listing of Tamil Literature (BC – 21st Century. AD)

29 05 2010

In this and
following webpage, an attempt is made to present a chronological listing
of the tamil authors and their
literary works. Though we have tried to collect here all
significant/classical tamil works, the list is by no means
comprehensive. Any help towards completing/correcting this table will be
highly appreciated.

The goal of this listing is to provide a
quick reference list of “who wrote what and approximately when”.
Assignment of a “date” to a very ancient tamil literary work is by no
means a trivial task even for Tamil scholars. Arguments about specific
assignments are very common. So the dates given below must be taken
purely as indicative!!!




aga nAnURu

ainguRu nURu








perungunRup perungAsikkanAr

malai padugadAm

mAnguti marudhanAr

madhuraik kansi

muththAmak kaNNiyAr

porunNARARttup padai

kadiyalUr uruththiran kaNNanAr



mullaip pAttu


padhiRRup paththu










kadiyalUr urttiran kaNNanar






2nd C. AD











4th C. AD





kUdhalUr kizhAr

mudhumozhik kaaNYi



5th C. AD



kabila thEvar

innA nARpadhu

pUdhaNY sEndhanAr

iniyavai nARpadhu


kalavazhi nARpadhu



6th C. AD



kaNNan kUththanAr

kAr nARpadhu

kAraikkAl ammaiyaar

aRpudhath thiruvandhAdhi

peruvAyin muLLiyAr

AsArak kOvai

kaNitha mEdhaviyAr



aindhiNai ezhubadhu

mAran poraiyanAr

aindhiNai aimbadhu


thiNaimozhi ambadhu

kaNitha mEdhaviyAr

thinaimAlai nURRaimbadhu



kAraikkAl ammaiyAr

Umuththa thiruppadhigam




pazhamozhi nAnURu

pullaNG kAdanNAr






vizhambi nAkanAr




7th C. AD








nAlAyira divya prabhandam



8th C. AD






iraiyanAr agapporuL



9th C. AD







mANikka vAsagar


sEramAn perumAL nAyanAr

thirukkayilAya NYAna ulA


hamizh neRi viLakkam




pAradha veNbA




puRapporuL veNbA mAlai

thiruththakka thEvar

sivaga sindhAmaNi




pancha marapu



10th C. AD






vAmana saridhai



nambi andAr nambi

athisaya piLLaiyAr pirabandhangaL




thiruppadhi kOvai


pingala nigandu

ubEndhiraach sAriyAr

singEndhira mAlai

thOlAmozhith thEvar




11th C. AD




kUdhalsangamaththup paraNi


koppaththup paraNi




kaNa nUl

kavigumudha sandhira pAndiyan

kulOththunga sOzhan saridhai

amidha sAgarar


amidha sAgarar

yApperungaLak kArigai





12th C. AD



pArAsamAyagOlAri mAmuni

aththAdhasa purANam


ambigAbadhi kOvai




arumbeyth thoLLaayiram


uththara kaandam


kulOththungan piLLaith thamizh


thakkaiyaap paraNi


mUvar ulA










irAmanuja nURRandhAdhi


kalingaththup paraNi

parasamaya kOzhari mAmuni

kaNNivana purANam


sEy kaguththan kadhai



kuNavira pandidhar

vasanNandhi mAlai

aruNAsalap perumAL emberumAnAr

viNNAna sAram


thiruppugalUr andhAdhi

thirukkadavUr uyyavandha thEvar

thirukkaruRRup pAdiyAr

thirukkarugai perumAL kavirAyar

thirukkarugai mANmiyam


thandi alangAram

aruNAsalapperumAL emberumAnAr





saraSvadhi andhAdhi


sindhaamaNip paripAdal


periya purANam

parasamAya kOzhari mAmuni

poombuliyUr nAdagam

aruLaaLap perumAL emberumAnAr

piramEya sAram

guNavIra pandithar




13th C. AD



naRkavirAsa nambi

agapporuL viLakkam

Adhichcha thEvar

iraNiyAvadaip paraNi

arunNandhi sivam

irubA irubadhu

vadaguttiruvidhip piLLai

iru muppaththariyap pathi

maNavasaNG kAththanAr

uNmai viLakkam


kulOththunga sOzhan kOvai

poyyAamozhip pulavar

thansaivaaNan kOvai


yasOdhara kAvyam

saththimuRRap pulavar

thanip pAdal


sangara sOzhan ulA

meyk kandAr

sivaNYAna pOdham

aruLnNandhi sivam

sivaNYAna siththiyAr


paramArththa tharisanam

pugazheendhip pulavar


pavananthi munivar




14th C. AD



kurumuni adigaL

agaththiyar thEvaraththirattu



a. maNavALap perumAL nAyanAr

AsArya hirudhayam

kOvai ambalanNAdhath thambirAn

Uruba sooruba agaval


EgAmbaranNAdhar ulA

kAchchiyappa civAchchAriyAr

kandha purANam


kappal kOvai


kalaviyAr karigai


nANAk kuRal

aruL namachchivAyar


aruL namachchivAyar

nANAbusaith thiruviruththam

veRRimAlaik kavirAyar

thiruchchendhUr puraaNam

avoorudhi nAdhar


tholgaappith thEvar

thiruppAdhirippuliyUr kalambagam

oppilimaaNap pulavar

thanip pAdal

umApathi sivasAriyAr


sambandha saraNAlayar

thaththuva viLakkam

sigazhi thaththuvap piragAsar

thaththuva piragAsam

civAlaya munivar

thevaarath thirattu


vinNAyagar agaval


varaiyaRuththa pAttiyal

vAmana munivar

mErumandhira purANam

meymmozhith thEvar

meym mozhich saridhai


meyNYNYaana viLakkam

navanItha nAthar

navanItha pAttiyal


jaina rAmAyaNam

aruL namachchivA yar

pOsana vidhi





nimbai sankaran^AraNanAr

madhuraik kOvai

kOvai ambalan^Adha thambirAnpiran

pirasAdha agaval

vizhAsOlaip piLLai



saRagOdi mAlai

parama munivar

sindhAndha sAram

umApadhic civarAyar



siva vaakkiyam


palsandha mAlai


palsandha mAlai

vA. azakiya
maNavaLap perumaL

bhAgavath geethai venbA


pattinattar pAdal thirattu



15th C. AD



agappEych siththar

agappEychchiththar pAdalgaL


aththiyUrk kOvai

adhimadhura kavirAyar

adhimadhura kavirAyar pAdalgaL


arichchandhira veNbaa

pradhivAdhi payangaram

aNNan amalanNAdhibirAn


azhagunichchiththar pAdalgaL


Adhinaar piLLaith thamizh

maNavALa mAmuni

Arththip pirabandham

idaik kaattuchchiththar

idaikkAttuchchiththar pAdalgaL


irAmayaNa veNbA


udhayaNa kumAra kAvyam

kONiriyappa nAvalar

ubadhEsa kAndam


ubadhEsa kaandam

maNavALa mAmuni

ubadhEsa rathna mAlai


umavAna sangiragam

kaNNudhaiya vaLLal

ozhivilO thukkam

kadhuvElich siththar

kadhuvElich siththar paadalgaL



aaRumuga nAvalar

kandha puraaNa vasanam

aruNagiri n^Adhar

kandhar alangAram

aruNagiri n^Adhar

kandhar anubUdhi


kabilar agaval


kayAdhara nigandu

kudhambaich siththar

kudhambaich siththar pAdalgaL

AdhivarAga kavi


udhisith thEvar


pagazhik kUththar

thiruchchendhUr piLLaiththamizh

thirunNeRiviLakka muththaiyAr

thirunNeRi viLakkam

aruNagiri nAdhar


aruNagiri nAdhar



sri purANam

paravAdhi kEsariyAr

srichaila vaibavam


vaLLith thirumaNam

kaaLi muththammai

varuNagulaththin mAdhal

kaNNuththaiya vaLLal


thAttavarAya suvAmigaL





sampradhaaya sandhirigai

kALamEgap pulavar

siththira madal


nangaipaaychchallur padhigam

thaththuvaraaya suvAmigaL



navalinga liilai



16th C. AD



rEvAnath chiththarar

agarAdhi nigandu

kuru namachchivAyar

aNNaamalai veNbA

kamalai nANabiragAsar

aththivAk kattaLai

vIran Asugavirayan

arichchandhira sariththiram

vIra kavirAyar

arichchandhira purANam

kugai namachchivAyar

aruNagiri andhAdhi

maRaiNYAna sambandhar

aruNAsala purANam

varaguNarAma pANdiyan

ambigai maalai


irAmayaNa AsArya thivya saridhai


irusamaya viLakkam

varadhungarAma pANdiyan

ilinga purANam


ulaga nIdhi

maraiNYNYAna sambandhar

Ongu kOyir purANam

kachchi nAnAppiragAsar

kachchik kalambagam

maRaiNYNYAna sambandhar


karuvoorur siththar

karuvUrur pusavidhi

adhivirarAma pANdiyan

kAsik kAndam



kamalai naNAnap piragAsar

thirumazhabaadhi purANam

adhiviirarAma pANdiyan

thirukkaruvai kaliththuRai andhAdhi

adhiviirarAma pANdiyan

thirukkaruvai padhiRRup paththandhAdhi

adhiviirarAma pANdiyan

thirukkaruvai veNbA andhAadhi

siRakkaviraasa piLLai

thirukkaazhaththi nAdhar ulA

thirukkarugai perumAL kavirAyar

thiruppadhi kOvai

niramba azhagiya thEsigar

thirupparaNGkiri purANam

virai kavirAsa pandidhar

seLandharya lagari

niramba azhagiya thEsigar

vENuvaana purANam

adhiviirarAma pANdiyan


koNgaanach settiyaar

vAlaik kummi

varaguNarAma pandidhan

vAyusaNYchigai purANam

thirukkurugai perumAL kavirAyar

mAran alangAram

thirukkurugai perumAL kavirAyar

mAran agapporuL


pirabandha marabiyal

kamalai nANappiragAsar


kamalai nANap piragAsar

pirasAdha mAlai

aiyan perumAL

pUruruva saridhai

varadhungarama pANdiyan

piramEththara purANam


kUdhal purANam

adhiviraraama pANdiyan

kUrma purANam

varadhungaraam pANdiyan


sidhambaranNaadha kavi

sangara vilaasam

maRaiNYAna sambandhar

sadamaNik kOvai

maRaiNYAna sambandhar

sangarppa nirAgaraNam

kamalai nANappiragAsar

sadhi nUl


sidhambarap pAttiyal


sidhambarap purANam


magaa purANam

tirukkurukai perumAL kavirAyar

namperumAL mummaNik kOvai


nallapiLLai bAratham


nallai kuravanchi


nallai venbA

thirukkarugai perumAL kavirAyar


sevvaich cUduvar

pAgavadha purANam

aruLALath thAsar

pAgavadha purANam

maRaiNYAna sambandhar

padhibasubAsap paNuval

rEvaNach siththar

sivaNYaana thibam

maRaiNYaana sambandhar


sivagiri yOgigaL

sivanNeRip piragaasam

kuruNYaana sambandhar


kamalai naaNappiragAsar

sivaangandhabOdhaga sAram



maRaiNYAna sambandhar

saiva samaya neRi

kamalai nANap piragAsar

saiva pUsai agaval

kamalai nANap piragAsar

saiva nUththaaNa agaval


nAkakumAra kAviyam

veerai ambikApathi

nellai varakkakOvai

athiveerarAma pANdiyan




17th C. AD



piLLaip perumAL ayyangAr

ashdap pirabandham

Andip pulavar

Asiriya nigandu

cuvAmin^Adha thItchadhar

ilakkaNak koththu

vaithyan^Adha thItchadhar

ilakkaNa viLakkam

agOra munivar

kaNNapparp purANam

agOra munivar

kumbagONap purANam


pirabandhath thirattu

an^thakkavi virarAgava mudhaliyAr

thirukkazhukkunRa purANam

an^thakkavi virarAgava mudhaliyAr

thirukkazhukkunRa maalai

sarkkaraip pulavar

thiruchchendhUr kOvai

ellappa nAvalar

thiruchchengAttAn kudi purANam

llappa nAvalar

thiruvaruNai andhaadhi

andasuvaamik kavirAyar

thanichcheyyuch sindhaamaNi

zhagiya siRRambalak kavirAyar

thazhasinga maalai

pattikkaacup pulavar

thoNdaimaNdala catakam

gOra munivar

vEdhaaraNya purANam

cuppiradhibak kavirAyar

kuzhappa nAyagan viRalividhiththu

Egasandhak kiraagi

vadamaalai veNbA

savvaadhup pulavar

mugaiyAdhin Andavar piLLaiththamizh

rAsai vadhamalaiyappap piLLai

makka purANam

cupramaNiya thitchadhar

pirayOga vivEgam

thu. sivappiragAsa suvAmigaL

sivappiragAsa suvAmigaL pAdalgaL

aanandha kaviraayar

sandhiravANan kOvai

kadhimaimuttup pulavar

samuththira vilAsam

umaRup pulavar

siRaap purANam

eLLappa nAvalar

sevvandhip purANam

Anandha kavirAyar

sennaik kalambagam

Anandha kavirAyar

sEyUr murugan piLLaiththamizh

suppiradhibak kavirAyar

kUzhappanNAyakkan kAdhal



18th C. AD



abirAmi pattar

abirAmi andhAdhi

ambalavaaNak kavirAyar

aRappaaLichchura cadhagam

aliyUr pulavar

indhirAyan padaippOr

aliyUr pulavar

ibuni Andhan padaippOr

aruNAcala kavirAyar

acOmugi n^Adagam

aruNAcala kavirAyar

an^umAr piLLaith thamizh

aruNAcala kavirAyar

iraamana thaagak kirththanai

aruNAcala kavirAyar

sigazhik kOvai


AzhvArgaL vazhith thirunNAmam

arumarundhu thEsigar

arumporuL viLakka nigaNdu

azhagiya nambi


kachchiyappa munivar

thiruththaNigai purANam

kandhasAmip pulavar

thiruppuvana purANam


thaNigaip piLLaiththamizh


thaNigai ulA


thaNigai andhAdhi

kurubadha thEsigar

kumarEsa sadhagam

kumAracuvAmi thEsigar

kumara cuvAmiyam

kumara kurupara thEsigar

Athma rAmAyaNam

cadagOpa thEsar

arisamaya thIpam

civaNYAna munivar

amudhAmbigai piLLaith thamizh

civaNYAna munivar

kalasai padhiRRupp an^thandhAdhi

civaNYAna munivar

kANYsi purANam

civaNYAna munivar

thirAvida mAbAdiyam

civaNYAna munivar

thirumullai vAyil andhAdhi

civaNYAna munivar

sOmEsar mudhumozhi veNbA

cAn^dhalinga cuvAmigaL

avirOdha un^dhiyaar

candhak kavirAyar

irangEsa veNbA

cidhambara nAdha munivar

thiruppAdhirippuliyUr purANam

cidhambara cuvAmigaL

thiruppUrur sannadhi muRai

cAndhup pulavar

mayUra kirik kOvai

cAndhalinga kavirAyar

thandhalaiyAr sadhagam


sivasiva veNbaa

cangaramurththik kavirAyar

sERRUr sEmindhArmidhu paLLu

thIrigudharAsappak kavirAyar

kuRRAlak kuRavansi

thIrigudharAsappak kavirAyar

kuRRAlach silEdai

thIrigudharAsappak kavirAyar

kuRRAlath thalaburANam

thIrigudharAsappak kavirAyar

kuRRAla mAlai

thIrigudharAsappak kavirAyar

kuRRAla yamagavandhAdhi


thAyumAnavar pAdal thirattu

thalaimalai kanda thEvar

marudhUr yAmaga andhAdhi

thAndavarAya cuvAmigaL

kaivAlya nAvanNidham

thOtikkazhai cupramaNiya muthaliyAr

cidhambarEsar vaNNam

pin vElappa thEsigar

thiruppariyalUr purANam

pinbazhagiya perumAL jiyar

kurubarambarai ArAyirappadhi

palappattai sokkanNaadhappulavar

azhagar kiLLaividu thUdhu

madhura kavirAyar

thirukkAvUr nandhinNAdagam

munaip pAdiyAr

aRan^eRich cAram


aRivAnan^dha ciththi

muththuvira ubaathyaayar



kailAya mAlai

mugammadhu husain

peNbuththi mAlai


viruththAsala purANam

nAyinA mugammadhu pulavar

mungirin mAlai

namachchivaayak kavirAyar

cingaik cilEdai veNbA

oppilAmaNip pulavar

civa ragaciyam

opAlagirushNa thEsar

embirAn cadhagam

vaNNakkaLansiyap pulavar

mugaiyaadhin purANam

rAmanNAdha cuvAmigaL

cangarppa nirAgaraNam

varadha pandidhar

civarAththirip purANam

vIramA munivar

adhikAla mAlai

vIramA munivar

avivEga purANaguru kadhai

viramA munivar


vIramA munivar

thoNNul viLakkam



19th C. AD



Arumuga n^Avalar

periya purANa vasanam

Arumugap pulavar

AththichchUdip purANam

AdhoomUla mudhaliyAr

kadhA cindhAmaNi

AnandhabAradhi ayyangAr

uththara rAmAyaNa kirththanai

aNNaamalai rettiyAr

kavithaic cin^du

cinna caravaNap perumAL kavirAyar

kAyargaNNi maalai

cinnaiya cettiyAr

aruNAchchilEdai veNbA mAlai

ciththilevvai maraikkAyar

AcAnbEyudhaiya sariththiram

caravaNa perumAL kavirAyar

asvamEdhayAga purANam

ciraikkavirAya piLLai

aNNAmalaiyAr vaNNam

kaNapathi ayyar

adhUrubAvadhi nAdagam

thuraicAmi UmuppanAr

ayOththin^agara maaNmiyam

sOmasundhara nAyagar

AacArya prabAvam

irAma bhaarathi

AththichchUdi veNbA

kirushNa piLLai

irAchchaNiya yAththirigam

irAmachandhira kavirAyar

irANiya vAsagappA

kan^dhap piLLai

irAma vilAsam

thiruchchiRRambala thEsigar

uththara kANda vasanam

thaNdapANi cuvAmigaL

aRuvagai ilakkaNam

thaNdabANi cuvAmigaL

EzhAyirap pirabandham

thaNdabANi cuvAmigaL

En Adhichchaiththar pAdalgaL

pUndhi arangan^Adha mudhaliyAr

kachchik kalambagam

thEvarAya cuvAmigaL

kandhar sashti kavasam

raajam ayyar

kamalAmbAL sariththiram

mINAtchicund^ara kavirAyar

kazhumalaith thirip pandhAdhi

kuNangudi maSdhaan saagip

kuNangudi maSdhAn pAdalgaL


kuvalaya nAdagam-1

sangaranNaarayaNa saaSdhiri

kuvalaya nAdagam-2

cinnasaravaNapperumAL kavirAyar

kunRakkudi silEdai veNbA

vijayarAgap piLLai

kurubarambaraip purANam

virarAgava mudhaliyAr

thirukkaNNa mangai maalai

saravaNa thEsigar

thirukkOvaiyaar uNmai

sinna caravaNapperumAL kavirAyar

thiruchchuzhiyal andhaadhi

rAmalinga adigaL


sabAbadhi nAlavar

thiraavida pirAgAsigai

rAmasandhirak kavirAyar

thArugAvana vilAsam

kaasi viSvanNAdha mudhaliyAr

thAsildhAr vilAsam

vi.kO. sUryanNaarayaNa saaSdhiri

thanip paasarath thogai

vi.kO. sUryanNaarAyaNa saaSdhiri

thamizhmozhi varalARu

vi.kO. sUryaNaarayaNa saasthiri

nAtaka viyal

thandabANi suvAmigaL

thamizh alangAram

kaasi viSvanNAdha mudhaliyAr

thambaachchAri vilAsam

vi.kO. sUriyanNArAyaNa sASdhiri


muththurAma mudhaliyAr

merundhEviththaayaar pansaraththinam

saravaNa thEsigar



vivEga sindhAmaNi

virabathra mudhaliyAr


virAsAmich settiyAr

vinOdharasa manjari

saravaNap perumAL kavirAyar

vinNAyagar thirumuga vilAsam

sErak kaviraasap piLLai

vAthpOkki naadaar ulaa

thandabANi suvaamigaL


viSvanNAdha sAththiriyAr

vaNNak kuRavansi

Anandha bAradhi ayyangAr

yAnaimElazhagar nondhisindhu

saravaNap perumaaL kavirAyar


kulaamgaadhiru nAvalar

Umuvar ammAnai

cundaram piLLai


pithAmbarap pulavar

maRaik kalambagam

cinna caravaNapperumAL kavirAyar

puvanEndhiran ammAnai

mAmbalak kavicinga nAvalar

pirabandhath thirattu

mInAtchicuntharam piLLai

pirabandhath thirattu

gopAlakrishna bArathiyAr

nanthanAr carithirak kIrthanai

thi. ciRiya rathna kavirAyar


thaNdapANi cuvAmigaL

pulavar purANam

muththuvEngada suppaiyA

pirabandha thibigai

vi.kO.sUryanNArayaNa sASdhiri

pAvalar virundhu

sadhAsivap piLLai pAvalar

sariththira thibagam

irAmAnuja kavirAyar

pArththasAradhi mAlai

paNdhiththuRai thEvar

paNNur thirattu


panniRu pAttiyal

rAmachchandhirak kavirAyar

sagundhalai vilAsam

visAga perumALaiyar


thirattu sivakkozhundhu thEsigar

pirabandhath thirattu

vEdan^ayagam piLLai

sarva sAmanya samarasak kIrththanai

vEdan^ayagam piLLai

piradhAbamudhaliyAr sariththiram

sOmasundhara naayagar

sivanNAmap paROdhai veNbA

kalvi kaLansiyap pulavar

siraap puraaNa vaNNam

vEdharaNyam piLLai


kalvik kaLansiyap pulavar

siththirakkavi thirattu

parasurAma kavirAyar

siruththondar vilaasam

suvAmi kavirAyar


muththappach settiyAr

seyangondAr sadagam

sErakkaviraasa piLLai

sEyUr murugan ulaa

vEdhagiri mudhaliyaar

manunNidhi sadhagam

vedakesari mudaliyAr

nIthi chindAmani

vedanAyagam piLLai

nIthi nUl


nIthi venbA



thaNdavarAya mudaliyAr

panchathandirak kathai


padmAvathi charithram

thAndava rAya mudaliyAr



vIrAsami chettiyAr

vinoda rasa manjari


rAmachandra kavirAyar

Sakuntali vilasam


rAmachandra kavirAyar

TAruka vilasam


rAmachandra kavirAyarr

Rangone sandai Natakam


kAsi viswanAtha mudaliyAr

Thasildar natakam (1868)


kAsi viswanAtha mudaliyAr

Dambhachari vilasam


kAsi viswanAtha mudaliyAr

Brahma samaja natakam


kandap piLLai

Kandi Natakam


kandap piLLai

chandrahasa vilasam


kadigaimuttu pulavar

Samudra vilasam


muthuviira kavirayAr



Arumuga n^Avalar



Arumuga n^Avalar

vin^Odaraca maNYari


cubramania kavirayAr, serrUr

naNamritham (editor)





Subramania KavirayAr, serrUr

sepparaip pillaith tamizh


Kandaswmai kavirayAr, serrUr

thani seyyul chintAmaNi


meenAkshicun^dara kavirayAr



meenAkshicun^dara kavirayAr

kalugumalai an^dAdi


gopAlakrishNa bhArathi



vEdan^Ayagam piLLai






civakkozhundu dEsikar



nellayappa kavirAyar



cubramanya cuvAmi



toluvUr vElAyudha mudaliyAr



vaNNak kalaNYiyap pulavar

rAjanAyagam (2240 verses)


vaNNak kalaNYiyap pulavar

ali pudusha nAtakam


meenAkshicun^daram piLLai(1815-1876)

uraiyUr purANam


meenAkshicun^daram piLLai (1815-1876)



meenAkshicun^daram piLLai (1815-1876)

vEdan^ayaham kOvai


meenAkshicun^daram piLLai(1815-1876)

sEkkizhar piLLait tamizh


meenAkshicun^daram piLLai(1815-1876)

tirunagaikkaroNap purANam


meenAkshicun^daram piLLai(1815-1876)

tirukukudan^daip purANam


meenAkshicun^daram piLLai (1815-1876)

tiruvidai marudUr ulA


meenAkshicun^daram piLLai (1815-1876)

vatpok kilambagam


G.U. Pope(1820-1907)

thirukkuRaL (translation)


G.U. Pope(1820-1907)

thiruvAchagam (translation)


G.U. Pope (1820-1907)

n^AladiyAr (commentary)


G.U. Pope (1820-1907)

n^eedhi n^eri viLakkam (comm.)


rAmalinga cuvamigaL (1823-1874)



rAmalinga cuvamigaL (1823-1874)

(arutperum jyOthi ahaval)


camuel vEdanAyagam piLLai (1826-1889 )

< charithram mudaliyar prAtapa>


camuel vEdanAyagam piLLai (1826-1889)

sugaNa sundari


krishNa piLLai (1827-1900)

rakshaNya yAtriham


krishNa piLLai 1827-1900

rakshaNya samaya n^iRnayam


krishNa piLLai (1827-1900)

rakshaNya manOharam


krishNa piLLai (1827-1900)

rakshaNya kuRraL


mAmbalak kaviccanga nAvalar (1836-1884)

vinayagamUrthi padiham


mAmbalak kaviccanga nAvalar (1836-1884)

tiruchen^dil padiham


cabAbathi mudaliyar (1838-1898)

tirukulan^dai vadivElan piLLai thamizh


cabAbathi mudaliyar (1838-1898)



cabAbathi mudaliyar (1838-1898)

tirupparankunrath an^dhAdhi


daNdapAni cuvamigaL (1839-1898)

pulavar purANam


daNdapAni cuvamigaL (1839-1898)

Aruvahai ilakkaNam (grammar)


civaNYAna yOgigaL (1840-1924)

sepparai veNbA


civaNYAna yOgigaL (1840-1924)

nellai andAdi


civaNYAna yOgigaL (1840-1924)

tiruchchendil sledai veNbA


civaNYAna yOgigaL

koyilpatti purANam


ranganAtha mudaliyar, pooNdi

kachchik kalambagam


U.V. cuvamin^Atha aiyer (1855-1942)

chintAmaNi (ed)


U.V. cuvamin^Atha aiyer (1855-1942)

silappadihAram (ed)


U.V. cuvamin^Atha aiyer (1855-1942)

pattuppAttu (ed)


U.V. cuvamin^Atha aiyer (1855-1942)

n^ambi thiruvilaiyAdaL (ed)


U.V. cuvamin^Atha aiyer (1855-1942)

paripAdal (ed.)


P.cun^daram piLLai (1855-1897)

manOnmaneeyam (1891)


V.P. cubramaNya mudaliyAr (1857-1946)

nellai sledai veNbA


V.P. cubramaNya mudaliyAr (1857-1946)

kOmbi viruttam


V.P. cubramaNya mudaliyAr (1857-1946)

ahalikai veNbA


S.M. n^atEca sastriyar (1859-1916)

maami koluvirukkai


S.M. n^atEca sastriyar (1859-1916)

dravidamadya kAlak kataigaL


S.M. n^atEca sastriyar (1859-1916)

takkanAttu purvakAla kataigaL


n^ArAyaNacuvami aiyer, pinnAtUr

nilakantesvarak kOvai


n^ArAyaNacuvami aiyer, pinnAtUr

idumbavana purANam


n^ArAyaNacuvami aiyer, pinnAtUr

irayanaar arruppadai


chaNmugam piLLai, sozhavEndAn

tolkAppiyap pAyira virutti


chaNmugam piLLai, sozhavEndAn

thirukuRaL chanmuga virutti


AraNi kuppucuvAmi mudaliyAr (1867-1925)

in^du madha uNmai


AraNi kuppucuvAmi mudaliyAr (1867-1925)

kaivAlya vachanam


T.S.D. cuvami

karungkuyil kunrattuk kOlai


R. rAghava aiyangAr (1870-1948)

sAkun^talam (translation)


A. mAdhavaiAh (1872-1925)

Padmvathi charitham


A. mAdhavaiAh (1872-1925)

vijaya marthandam


A. mAdhavaiAh (1872-1925)

muthu meenakshi


Sheik thambippavalar (1872-1950)



Sheik thambippavalar (1872-1950)

shamsuddin kovai


Sheik thambippavalar (1872-1950)



rAjam aiyer(civasubramaNya aiyer)

kamalambAl charitam


P. camban^da mudaliyar (1873-1964)

leelavathi sulOchana


civaprakAsa swAmigaL, karapatram

vedAnta manana chintAmani


civaprakAsa swAmigaL,

mAhavakya rahasyam


J.R. rangarAju (1875-1925)



J.R. rangarAju (1875-1925)



dEsiga vin^Ayagam piLLai (1876-1954)

Light of Asia (transl.)


dEsiga vin^Ayagam piLLai (1876-1954)

omAr khayyAm (transl.)


dEsiga vin^Ayagam piLLai(1876-1954)

malarum maliyum


dEsiga vin^Ayagam piLLai (1876-1954)

kuzhandai selvam


maRaimalai adigaL (vEdAchalam)

sOmasundarak kANYi akkam


maRaimalai adigaL (vEdAchalam)

mullaippattu (commentary)


maRaimalai adigaL (vEdAchalam)

pattinappAlai (commentary)


maRaimalai adigaL (vEdAchalam)

sAkuntalam (translation)


maRaimalai adigaL (vEdAchalam)

kumudavalli (novel)


M. rAghava aiyengar (1878-1960)

tolkAppiya poruladhikAra arachi


C.K. cubramaNya mudaliyar (1878-1961)

avanaci karunAmbikai piLLai tamizh


C.K. cubramaNya mudaliyar (1878-1961)

periya purANam (commentary)


cubramaNya bhArati, varakavi

jatavallabhar (novel)


cubramaNya bhArati, varakavi

vijayabhaskaram (novel)


cubramaNya bhArati, varakavi

sun^daravaLLi (novel)


cubramaNya bhArati, varakavi

srivalli n^ayaki (play)


cubramaNya bhArati, varakavi

bhAratam (play)


cubramaNya bhArati, varakavi

paadukaa pattAbisheham (play)


vaduvUr doraiswAmi aiyengAr (1880-1942)

dikambara cAmiyAr (novel)


vaduvUr doraiswAmi aiyengAr (1880-1942)

marungapuri mayakkolai (novel)


V.V. cubramaNya aiyer (1881-1925)

kuRaL (engl.transl.)


V.V. cubramaNya aiyer (1881-1925)

kurun^thohai(eng. transl.)


V.V. cubramaNya aiyer (1881-1925)

mangayarkariciyin kadal


C. cubramaNya bhArathi (1882-1921)

pANYali sabatham, kuyil pAttu


C. cubramaNya bhArathi (1882-1921)

kaNNan pAttu


C. cubramaNya bhArathi (1882-1921)

chan^drikaiyin kadai


T.V.kalyANacun^dara mudaliyAr

murugan alladu azhagu


T.V.kalyANacun^dara mudaliyAr

peNNin perumai


cubramaNya civA (1884-1925)

nana bAnu, prapaNYa mitram


cubramaNya civA (1884-1925)

indiya desanthri


jagaviira pANdiyan(1886-1967)

thirukuRaL kumarEsa veNbA


jagaviira pANdiyan (1886-1967)

viira pANdiyan (epic)


jagaviira pANdiyan (1886-1967)

paNYAlakkurichi viira charitram


n^Amakkal rAmalingam piLLai (1888-1972)

malaikaLLan (fiction)


n^Amakkal rAmalingam piLLai (1888-1972)

mAman mahal (novel)


n^Amakkal rAmalingam piLLai (1888-1972)

Karpakavalli (novel)


bhArathi dAsan (1891-1964)

kanaka subburathnam


T.N. cEshachAlam aiyer (1891-1938)

Julius Caeser (translation)


T.N. cEshachAlam aiyer (1891-1938)

Tempest (translation)


S.V. guruswami sarmA



R. krishNamUrthi (kalki) (1899-1954)

pArthiban kanavu


R. krishNamUrthi (kalki) (1899-1954)

sivakAmiyin sabatham


R. krishNamUrthi (kalki) (1899-1954)

alai oosai


R. krishNamUrthi (kalki) (1899-1954)

ponniyin selvan


R. krishNamUrthi (kalki) (1899-1954)



bavan^an^dam piLLai ( -1932)

tolkAppiya porul adihAram


bavan^an^dam piLLai ( -1932)

irayanar ahappurul


bavan^an^dam piLLai ( -1932)



cuddAn^an^da bhArathi







cEra thANdavam



pANdiyan parisu



bAradhidhAsan pAdalgaL






maNimEgalai veNbA



azhagin sirippu


rA. rAgavaiyangAr



siRumAnavUr munucAmi mudhaliyAr



cupramaNiya bAradhiyAr

bAradhiyAr pAdalgaL


cupramaNiya bAradhiyAr

bAradhiyAr kadhaigaL


cupramaNiya bAradhiyAr

bAradhiyAr katturaigaL


pAlvaNNa mudhaliyAr

corpozhivARRup padai


pammal camban^dhamudhaliyAr

cambandhamudhaliyAr n^AdagangaL


maRaimalai adigaL

kOgilAmbAL kadidhangaL


cangaradhAsa cuvAmigaL

cangaradhAsa cuvAmigaL n^Adagam cidhambaranAr



pAmban swAmigal

nAlaayira prabhanda vichAram


nA. kathiraivEr piLLai

pattinatthAr puraNam


pA. jivaanNandham

jivAvin pAdalgaL



vANidhAsan kavidhaigaL


thi.thA. saravaNa muththu piLLai



kArththigEya mudhaliyAr

mozhi nUl


maraimalai adigaL

mullaippaattu ArAychchi


kAlamum maraimalai adigaL

mANikka vAsagar varalARum


thEsiga vinNAyagam piLLai

malarum mAlaiyum


thEsiya vinNAyagam piLLai

marumagaLvazhi mANmiyam


mu. kadhirEsan settiyaar

maNNiyal siruththEr


E.paa. supramaNiya mudhaliyAr

agaligai veNbA


uththuth thambip pulavar

abidhAna kOsam


a. singAravElu mudhaliyAr

abidhAna sindhAmaNi


E. raamalingam piLLai

avaLum avanum


thEsiga vin^Ayagam piLLai

Asiya jOdhi



AththichchUdi veNbA


u. raagava ayyangAr

ArAchchith thogudhi


ulavar kuzhandhai

irAvaNa kAvyam


kumAra cuvAmip pulavar

ilakkiya sollagarAdhi


thEsiga vin^Ayagam piLLai

umaargayyaam pAdalgaL


rA.pi. sEdhuppiLLai

Urum pErum



E. rAmalingam piLLai

en kadhai



U. vE. suvAmin^Adha ayyar

en sariththiram




ainguru kAppiyangaL




kaNNagi puratchik kAppiyam




kaNNadhAsan kavidhaigaL



Abiragaam paNdidhar

karuNaamithra sAgaram mudhaliyAr





kudumba viLakku



sEgavira pANdiyar

thirukkuRak kumarEsa veNbA



saNmugam piLLai

thirumullai vAyiR purANam



srinivAsa piLLai

thamizh varalARu



a. kumArasuvAmip pulavar

thamizhp pulavar sariththiram



sa. vaiyaaburip piLLai

thamizhch sudar maNigaL



kaviNYar thamizh oli

thamizh oli kavidhaigaL



pA.vo. mANikka nAyakkar

thamizh ezhuththukkaLukku nanboruL



kaa. supramaNiya piLLai

thamizh ilakkiya varalARu



theesigavinaayagam piLLai

thEviyin keerththanaikal







Mu. iRagavaiyangAr

tholkApiyam poruLathikara ArAchi








19-20th C AkilAsanAr


19-20th C cuvami vipulanAthar

yazh nool

19-20th C cOmasundarap pulavar


19-20th C muthu thambi pulavar

AsAnpayin saritham

1823-1879 Arumuga n^Avalar, n^allUr

rAma vilAsam

1823-1879 Arumuga n^Avalar, n^allUr

chandrahasa vilAsam

1823-1879 Arumuga n^Avalar, n^allUr

kaNdi natakam

1843-1881 Ganesa pandithar, Jaffna


1832-1901 C.W. dAmodaram piLLai

viira soliyam (ed)

1832-1901 C.W. dAmodaram piLLai

tanigaippurANam (ed)

1832-1901 C.W. dAmodaram piLLai

kalittogai (ed)

(1858-1917) A.muthu thambi piLLai

bhAratha surukkam

1858-1917 A.muthu thambi piLLai

nannullaghu bOdham

1858-1917 A.muthu thambi piLLai

yalppana charitram

1858-1917 A.muthu thambi piLLai

abhidana kOlam

1851-1930 P. rAman^Athan

bhagavad gitA (translation)

late 19thC chidambaram piLLai,

nyaya ilakkaNam

late 19thC chidambaram piLLai,

ilakkiya sangraha

19th C vaidhyalingam piLLai

chindAmaMi nikandu

19th C vaidhyalingam piLLai

caiva mahatva bhAn

Doing Business 2010: A record in business regulation reform

29 05 2010

Since 2004 Doing Business has been tracking regulatory reforms aimed at improving the ease of doing business. Despite the challenges presented by the financial crisis, the number of reforms hit a record level this year. Between June 2008 and May 2009, 287 reforms were recorded in 131 economies, 20% more than the year before. Reformers focused on making it easier to start and operate a business, strengthening property rights and improving the efficiency of commercial dispute resolution and bankruptcy procedures.

Two regions were particularly active this year: Eastern Europe and Central Asia and the Middle East and North Africa. In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 26 of the region’s 27 economies reformed business regulation in at least one area covered by Doing Business. Governments in the Middle East and North Africa are reforming at a similar rate, with 17 of 19 reforming in 2008/09. In both cases, competition among neighbors helped inspire widespread reform.

Singapore, a consistent reformer, is the top-ranked economy on the ease of doing business for the fourth year in a row, with New Zealand as runner-up. But most of the action occurred in developing economies. Two-thirds of the reforms recorded in the report were in low- and lower-middle-income economies. For the first time a Sub-Saharan African economy, Rwanda, is the world’s top reformer of business regulation, making it easier to start businesses, register property, protect investors, trade across borders, and access credit.

Doing Business ranks economies based on 10 indicators of business regulation that record the time and cost to meet government requirements in starting and operating a business, trading across borders, paying taxes, and closing a business. The rankings do not reflect such areas as macroeconomic policy, security, labor skills of the population or the strength of the financial system or financial market regulations.

Once again the most popular reform measure fell in the category of starting a business, with three-quarters of economies making it easier to start a business. Paying taxes was the next most popular category. The financial crisis has also prompted governments to act in areas where regulatory reform may be more difficult and require more time. During the past year 18 economies reformed their bankruptcy regimes, including several economies in the hard-hit region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In times of recession, keeping viable companies operating as a going concern and preserving jobs becomes especially important.

Starting a business
Note: Not all indicators are covered for the full period. Registering property was introduced in Doing Business 2005, and paying taxes, trading across borders, dealing with construction permits and protecting investors in Doing Business 2006.

Thanks to

Innovative Web Design

27 05 2010


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